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Full text of "Programming"

Intro to Scratch 



i 



Make Projects 



build, hack, tweak, share, discover, J 



Intro to Scratch 



Written By: Jeremy Kerfs 



f TOOLS: 

• Computer (1) 

• Scratch software (1) 



SUMMARY 

The big video game companies create best-selling titles every year, but for the rest of us, 
bringing our own unique game ideas from wishful thinking into reality is notoriously difficult. 

Creating even the simplest functionality can take tens of thousands of lines of code. Luckily, 
the MIT Media Lab has created free software, Scratch (scratch.mit.edu), that lets kids 
create their own games or interactive stories using an easy drag-and-drop interface and 
some elementary programming. 

Download, install, and launch Scratch, and soon you'll be creating simple "side-scrollers" — 
games like Super Mario Bros., where characters navigate obstacles left-to-right. You can 
also make your characters communicate via speech balloons, like an animated cartoon. 
Scratch makes no distinction between games and animations; it's all in your programming. 



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Intro to Scratch 




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Intro to Scratch 




In software parlance, Scratch is an 
object-oriented, event-driven, 
visual programming environment. 
Let's take those terms separately. 

• Object-oriented means that you 
design each character in your 
game (each sprite) by putting 
together scripts that dictate its 
behavior. Then when you run the 
game, the sprites all just do their 
own thing. To influence each 
other, the sprites pass coded 
messages called broadcasts. 

• Event-driven means that every 
script you assemble for each 
sprite runs in reaction to some 
triggering event, like when the 
player clicks on the sprite, or 
hits one of the keyboard keys, or 
when another sprite broadcasts 
a message. 

• Visual programming 

environment means that blocks 
on the screen represent basic 
programming elements, and you 
assemble a series of 
instructions by dragging-and- 
dropping the blocks together into 
stacks. The blocks are color- 
coded and shaped so they only 
fit together in ways that make 
sense programmatically: the 
triggering events look like folder 
tabs, and the subsequent steps 
fit together like jigsaw puzzle 



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Intro to Scratch 



pieces. Numbers fit into round 
holes, text strings fit into 
rectangular text boxes, and 
conditionals fit into diamond- 
sided holes that look like 
decision points in a flowchart. 






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• Scratch's main screen has 3 columns: 

• The program blocks are on the left, organized into menus by type. 

• The middle column is where you stack the blocks into a sprite's scripts. Tabs at the top 
also let you customize the sprite's costumes (the different ways it can appear) and the 
sounds it can make. You can select costumes from a native library of animals, things, 
and people, or else design your own using the Paint Editor pane. Similarly, you can 
select sounds from a library of effects, or record your own by clicking the Record 
button. 

• The right column contains the stage, where the game's action takes place. When you 
first open the program, the stage is a white rectangle containing one sprite, the orange 
cat that's Scratch's icon. To run and stop your game, you click the green flag or the 
stop-sign button above the stage. 

• Below the stage, you see thumbnails of all the sprites in your game. This is where you 
manage your cast of characters, creating new sprites and selecting the one you're working 
on. There's also a thumbnail for the stage itself, because it works as a special sprite; you 
can control its appearance, to paint backdrops, for example, but you can't make it move 
around. 



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Intro to Scratch 




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Intro to Scratch 




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To illustrate Scratch programming 
technique, here's how you can 
make the cat move with the arrow 
keys. To start a program, open the 
Control program blocks on the left 
and drag the first block, when 
(green flag) clicked, into the center 
of the Scripts pane. This block 
instructs the program to start this 
script as soon as the program is 
started. 

The Control tab contains blocks 
that trigger scripts and blocks that 
determine their flow, such as loops 
and //statements. Add a forever 
block under the green flag block; 
this sets up an endless listen- 
respond loop. Next, drag 4 //blocks 
into the forever loop. We'll use 
these to check for the 4 different 
arrow keys. 

Look under the Sensing tab and 
drag a key [space] pressed? block 
into one of the if block slots. In this 
game, we want to know if the arrow 
keys are pressed, not the space 
bar, so click the box in the block 
and change space to one of the 
arrow keys. Fill the other 3 /"/ 
blocks to sense the other 3 arrows. 

Under the Motion category, move a 
change x by 10 block into the if 
blocks for the right and left arrows, 
and a change y by 10 into the 
up/down blocks. To correct the 
directions for left and down, put a 

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Intro to Scratch 



minus sign (-) in front of the 10. 

Your program should look like the 
photo. Click the green flag, and you 
should be able to maneuver the cat 
around the screen. You can see 
that the if statements inside the 
forever loop evaluate as true if the 
key is pressed and false if not. The 
movement blocks then adjust the 
position of the cat accordingly. 



References and Community 



Scratch is well documented at http://info.scratch.mit.edu/ support, which has a good How to Get 
Started document and a Reference Guide that documents all of the blocks. With these 
resources, you should have no trouble creating your projects. And if you want some inspiration 
for coming up with ideas, the Scratch website also boasts more than 500,000 projects you can 
view and play online. To explore what others are doing with Scratch, go to 
http://scratch.mit.edu/channel/recent . 

The Scratch community lets you share your projects and comment on others. To join, go to 
http://scratch.mit.edu/signup . Sharing your project is as easy as clicking Share at the top of the 
Scratch window and then choosing "Share this program online." If you like someone else's 
project, you can download and change it yourself, which is a great way to learn. But if you gain 
inspiration (or code) from other people's projects, make sure you credit them. 

For people to play your Scratch games directly, they need to have Scratch installed on their own 
machines. But there are also ways of converting Scratch projects into .exe executable files that 
will run on any Windows machine. 

Visit http://makezine.com/21/diykids scratch for downloadable examples of user created games. 

This project first appeared in MAKE Volume 21 , page133. 

This document was last generated on 201 2-1 1 -03 1 2:47:1 9 AM. 



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